Two generations of veterinarians caring and working for the health of birds.

May 10, 2012 

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Hematochezia macaw chick

Hematochezia in a macaw chick. Image provided by Dr. Greg Rich.

Fecal cytology

Normal fecal Gram stain cytology in a parrot. Image by Greg Rich.

Avian Cytology:

Historically, routine Gram's stains were performed in apparently healthy birds. However as our understanding of avian medicine has grown, veterinarians have questioned the  validity of cytology as a screening tool. 

Cytology is indicated when:

  • Specific problems are reported
  • Abnormalities are identified during physical examination

Check out Basic Cytology of the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract for tips that will help you accurately and efficiently evaluate cytology.

One Paper: Two World Class Cytologists

Cytology of the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract was written by Dr. Terry Campbell, Associate Professor of Zoological Medicine at Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Campbell is also co-author of Avian and Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology, the definitive hematology and cytology reference for exotic animal veterinarians.

Cytology of the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract was reviewed by Dr. Kenneth Latimer (shown here), Professor Emeritus in the Department of Pathology at the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Latimer is board-certified in veterinary clinical pathology and a member of the American College of Veterinary Pathology. He has over 30 years of  experience in academia, research, private practice and industrial settings.

Dr. Kenneth Latimer



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Where do you stand on the "Gram Stain Issue"? Do you routinely perform Gram's stains as screening tests in birds?


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